Higher biology 2012 essay predictions

Each year you will have to cover a prescribed set of poets, plays and works of fiction. In the exam it is really important to work to the clock and get your timings correct so that you get all questions finished. Pay attention to your vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and handwriting as this all will play a part in how the examiner marks your exam.

The English exam is very understandable and approachable. The exam is designed to let you express what you do know rather than catch you out on things you don't know. Three texts one of which is visual are presented to you on a general theme. Two sets of questions, an A and a B follow each text. You must answer a Question A on one text and a question B on a different text. A pass in English is a requirement for entry into many CAO courses. Download the Prescribed Texts for the Exam.

Read more Read less In the exam it is really important to work to the clock and get your timings correct so that you get all questions finished. Paper I Higher and Ordinary Level - mins marks Section I Three texts one of which is visual are presented to you on a general theme. English 1 Composition Personal Writing. Comparative - Cultural Context. Comparative - Literary genre Comparative - Theme or Issue.

Hamlet King Lear. Poetry - Heaney Poetry - Hopkins Poetry - Kennelly Poetry - Ni Chuilleanain Poetry - Plath Poetry - Yeats Text - All My Sons. Text - Americanah. Text - Never Let me Go Text - Persuasion. Text - The Great Gatsby. Text - The Handmaid's Tale. Text - Wuthering Heights. The Tempest. Unseen Poetry.Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Cells have evolved into two fundamentally different types, eukaryotic and prokaryoticwhich can be distinguished on the basis of their structure and the complexity of their organization.

The simplest organisms which consist of one cell are called prokaryotes. More complex organisms are called eukaryotes and they consist of many cells. Early prokaryotes lived at least 3. Bacteria and algae Cells can perform activities required to sustain life. Cells also play a key role in the recycling of carbon, a chemical element essential to life, and also participate in cellular processes such as photosynthesis.

With these points in mind, it should be noted that cells come in one of two forms: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. By investigating the structural and functional similarities and differences of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and by exploring the process of endosymbiosos, one can gain further insight into the diversity of cells.

One distinct difference between these cells is prokaryotic cells can be classified as either bacteria or archaea while eukaryotic cells make up all other forms of life including plants and animals. This distinction arises from the fact that prokaryotic cells are simple, small, and mostly unicellular whereas eukaryotic cells are more complex, big, and generally multi-cellular. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane enclosed nucleus and many small organelles in its cytoplasm while Eukaryotic vs.

Prokaryotic cells Prompt: Describe the similarities and differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. All organisms are made of cells. The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of every organism.

higher biology 2012 essay predictions

Cells fall into two distinct types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. While Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are similar in that both types of cells are bounded by a plasma membrane, all contain cytosol, and all have chromosomes and ribosomes; they differ in the location of their DNA, organelles in the cytoplasm, and their size. All cells share certain basic features. They are bounded by a selective barrier known as the plasma membrane. All cells contain cytosol which is a semifluid, jelly-like substance.

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Also all cells have chromosomes and ribosomes. Chromosomes carry genes in the form of DNA. Ribosomes are tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes. The Nucleus The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not.

Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA. Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth for millions of years until more complicated eukaryotic cells came into being through the process of evolution.

Prokaryotes also differ from eukaryotes in the structure, packing, density, and arrangement of their genes on the chromosome. Prokaryotes have incredibly compact genomes compared to eukaryotes, mostly because prokaryote genes lack introns and large non-coding regions between each gene.

This lesser degree of control over gene expression Which sequence lists organisms in the order of producer, consumer and decomposer? Which function below is performed by eukaryotic cellsbut not prokaryotic cells?Content: 31 pages with 60 questions and answers.

Explain the various ways in which a typical cell is adapted to its functions. Explain how the various specialized cells are modified to carry out their functions in plants and animals. Describe how the mammalian body protects itself against infections.

Describe what happens to a meal of oily beans and maize from the time of ingestion up to the time of absorption. Outline and explain the various homeostatic functions of the liver in mammals. Required in the dark stage of photosynthesis; it combines with the hydrogen ion from the light stage; to form glucose, proteins and lipids; low concentrations reduces the rate of production of energy and food; while high concentrations leads to an increase in the amount of energy and food formed.

It is used to break down water molecules through photolysis ; into hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy; the energy and hydrogen ions formed are used in the dark stage.

Green pigment that traps light energy from the sun; that is used in photolysis of water molecules. Forms a medium for the chemical reactions; it is split to yield hydrogen ions, oxygen and energy for use in the dark stage; solvent for the materials used in photosynthesis; Max. Long; and narrow; to increase the surface area for complete digestion of food; and maximum absorption of digested food; highly-coiled; to reduce speed of food flow; for maximum digestion; and absorption; presence of villi; and microvilli; to increase surface area; for maximum absorption; dense network of capillaries; to transport blood; for efficient transport of absorbed food; presence of lacteals; for absorption of fatty acids and glycerol molecules; presence of enzymes: Lipase; for digestion of lipids into fatty acids and glycerol; maltase; for digestion of maltose to glucose molecules; peptidase; for breakdown of peptides into amino acids; sucrase; for digestion of sucrose into glucose and fructose; lactase; for digestion of lactose into glucose and galactose; goblet cells; produce mucus; to lubricate the walls of the ileum; for smooth flow of food; coats the walls of ileum to prevent digestion by peptidase enzyme; Max.

Mechanisms of control and maintenance of a constant internal environment regardless of the external conditions; 2 mks. Describe the route taken by water from the soil up to the evaporating surface of a plant. This force, known as transpiration pull; helps in maintaining a continuous column of water from the roots to the leaves; water flows from the midrib into leaf veins from where it enters leaf cells; from the mesophyll cells, it enters the airspaces; then the substomatal air chambers; from where it evaporates through the stomata; to the atmosphere; Max.

Deoxygenated blood from body tissues except lungs ; enters the heart via the right auricle; through the venacava; it flows to the right ventricle; via the tricuspid valve; the right ventricle contracts; pumping blood; via the semi lunar valves; through the pulmonary artery; to the lungs for oxygenation; the oxygenated blood from the lungs; flow through the pulmonary vein; to the left auricle; via the bicuspid valve; to the left ventricle; the left ventricle contracts; pumping blood via the semi lunar valves; through the aorta; to the rest of the body tissues; Max.

The sphincter on the urethra relaxes to allow urine to be released from the body; Max. Secreted by the pancrease; in response to a decline in blood glucose level; it stimulates liver cells to convert the stored glycogen and fats back to glucose; stimulates the conversion of amino acids to glucose; and stops the oxidation of glucose in the body cells; the glucose formed is released to the bloodsteream causing a rise of blood glucose level to normal; Max.

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Memories We Lost and other Stories pdf free Download. Please enter your comment! Please enter your name here. You have entered an incorrect email address! Go to mobile version.PLoS Biol 12 12 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

higher biology 2012 essay predictions

Progress in science often begins with verbal hypotheses meant to explain why certain biological phenomena exist. Because not all subfields of biology use mathematics for this purpose, misunderstandings of the function of proof-of-concept modeling are common.

In the hope of facilitating communication, we discuss the role of proof-of-concept modeling in evolutionary biology. Recent advances in many fields of biology have been driven by a synergistic approach involving observation, experiment, and mathematical modeling see, e. Evolutionary biology has long required this approach, due in part to the complexity of population-level processes and to the long time scales over which evolutionary processes occur.

Formal i. Despite their integral role in evolutionary biology, the purpose of certain types of mathematical models is often questioned [8]. Some view models as useful only insofar as they generate immediately testable quantitative predictions [9]and others see them as tools to elaborate empirically-derived biological patterns but not to independently make substantial new advances [10].

Doubts about the utility of mathematical models are not limited to present day studies of evolution—indeed, this is a topic of discussion in many fields including ecology [11][12]physics [13]and economics [14]and has been debated in evolution previously [15].

We believe that skepticism about the value of mathematical models in the field of evolution stems from a common misunderstanding regarding the goals of particular types of models. While the connection between empiricism and some forms of theory e. This conceptual gap obstructs the stated goals of evolutionary biologists; a recent survey of evolutionary biologists and ecologists reveals that the community wants more interaction between theoretical and empirical research than is currently perceived to occur [16].

To promote this interaction, we clarify the role of mathematical models in evolutionary biology. First, we briefly describe how models fall along a continuum from those designed for quantitative prediction to abstract models of biological processes. Then, we highlight the unique utility of proof-of-concept models, at the far end of this continuum of abstraction, presenting several examples. We stress that the development of rigorous analytical theory with proof-of-concept models is itself a test of verbal hypotheses [11][17]and can in fact be as strong a test as an elegant experiment.

Good evolutionary theory always derives its motivation from the natural world and relates its conclusions back to biological questions. Building such theory requires different degrees of biological abstraction depending on the specific question. Some questions are best addressed by building models to interface directly with data. For example, DNA substitution models in molecular evolution can be built to take into account the biochemistry of DNA, including variation in guanine and cytosine GC content [18] and the structure of the genetic code [19].

These substitution models form the basis of the likelihood functions used to infer phylogenetic relationships from sequence data.

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Models can also provide baseline expectations against which to compare empirical observations e. In contrast, higher degrees of abstraction are required when models are built to qualitatively, as opposed to quantitatively, describe a set of processes and their expected outcomes. Though not mathematical, verbal or pictorial models have long been used in evolutionary biology to form abstract hypotheses about processes that operate among diverse species and across vast time scales.

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A clear verbal model lays out explicitly which biological factors and processes it is and is not considering and follows a chain of logic from these initial assumptions to conclusions about how these factors interact to produce biological patterns.In the practical exam you may be required to create a hypothesis and to obtain results from a given experiment method.

Scientists use hypotheses to explain things that they observe. Hypotheses can be tested to confirm whether or not a variable has an effect on another variable, and what the relationship is between the variables. A hypothesis in practical work is a prediction that is supported with an explanation. The explanation might use previous knowledge or scientific evidence. You may have to suggest a testable hypothesis for your practical assessment.

higher biology 2012 essay predictions

These are three examples of predictions for stretching a spring. A is a simple prediction, B is slightly more detailed, and C is a very detailed prediction. There is a link between the length of a spring and the amount of weight put on it. I think that if I add more weight to the spring it will get longer and its extension and weight might be proportional to each other. I think if I double the weight on the spring, the extension will also double. The extension of the spring and the weight might be directly proportional to each other.

The newton meters have scales written on the side for measuring force and the scale lines are equally spaced for multiples of the same amount of weight added.

This prediction can be tested in the lab. All practical predictions imply some sort of relationship between an independent variableand a dependent variable.

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To make sure that the effect of changing only one variable on the dependent variable is investigated, other variables are kept the same. They are the control variables. What is the independent variable in the above predictions of an investigation? The weight added to the spring. What is the dependent variable in the investigation?

The length or extension of the spring. What are the control variables in the investigation?

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The spring used must be the same throughout. The length of the spring or extension should be read from the same place for each measurement. Writing hypotheses In the practical exam you may be required to create a hypothesis and to obtain results from a given experiment method. Predictions A. Variables All practical predictions imply some sort of relationship between an independent variableand a dependent variable.

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Question What is the independent variable in the above predictions of an investigation? Reveal answer up.Once, during a meeting at my university, a biologist mentioned that he was the only faculty member present from a science department.

When I corrected him, noting that I was from the Department of Psychology, he waved his hand dismissively, as if I were a Little Leaguer telling a member of the New York Yankees that I too played baseball.

It is thus no surprise that many members of the general public feel the same way. But of late, skepticism about the rigors of social science has reached absurd heights. The U. House of Representativesrecently voted to eliminate funding for political science research through the National Science Foundation.

The reason is that such predictions almost always require randomized controlled experiments, which are seldom possible when people are involved. This is news to me and the many other social scientists who have spent their careers doing carefully controlled experiments on human behavior, inside and outside the laboratory. What makes the criticism so galling is that those who voice it, or members of their families, have undoubtedly benefited from research in the disciplines they dismiss.

Most of us know someone who has suffered from depression and sought psychotherapy. He or she probably benefited from therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy that have been shown to work in randomized clinical trials. Problems such as child abuse and teenage pregnancy take a huge toll on society. Interventions developed by research psychologists, tested with the experimental method, have been found to lower the incidence of child abuse and reduce the rate of teenage pregnancies.

Ever hear of stereotype threat? It is the double jeopardy that people face when they are at risk of confirming a negative stereotype of their group. When African American students take a difficult test, for example, they are concerned not only about how well they will do but also about the possibility that performing poorly will reflect badly on their entire group.

This added worry has been shown time and again, in carefully controlled experiments, to lower academic performance. But fortunately, experiments have also showed promising ways to reduce this threat. Consider three popular programs that research psychologists have debunked: Critical Incident Stress Debriefing, used to prevent post-traumatic stress disorders in first responders and others who have witnessed horrific events; the D. All three of these programs have been shown, with well-designed experimental studies, to be ineffective or, in some cases, to make matters worse.A former college president and state attorney general considers leadership issues in higher education.

Most experts predict we will not have a vaccine for COVID until mid, more than a year from now. In the meantime, the American higher education community is going to be turned upside down, and the educational effects will last long after the virus has been brought under control. What will the impact be? Here are 10 predictions. Summary: disruption will finally arrive. Most private colleges and universities, and a large number of public ones, will welcome students on campus this fall, because they face a total financial disaster if they do not.

The semester will, however, in no way resemble what we knew before the crisis. Many large lecture classes will meet online, all dorm rooms will be singles, dining halls will operate at reduced capacity with long lines and most traditional campus activities will be curtailed. As the weather gets colder, universities will experience COVID outbreaks, and many students will head home again.

Some parents will sue when their children get sick or die; other will demand refunds or sue because the interrupted education does not meet their expectations. Universities will struggle to deal with all this, particularly because they will have laid off many of the student affairs and financial aid staff members on whom they would ordinarily rely to cope. Even if they open, universities will be hammered financially.

Meanwhile, operations costs will skyrocket, given decreased dorm and dining hall density and higher cleaning costs, IT and health services demands, and loss of offsetting ancillary income.

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State schools will see a major drop in state funding. Massive layoffs, salary cuts and program terminations, already underway, will continue and deepen.

Expect some schools to declare exigency and use the emergency to drive a major reordering of academic programming, to the detriment on the humanities, arts and traditional in-residence education. Now that most colleges and universities are operating online, university presidents and administrators will want them to stay online.

Short term, faculty will go along with this. They understand that institutions will need to offer online classes to maintain social distancing.

But when institutions pivot, seeking to transform many of their degree programs into permanent online offerings, expect tenured and tenure-track faculty to raise serious questions and to resist. Lots of shared governance challenges will surface as a result. Pundits and critics of higher education, many of them in elected office, will be quick to declare that since the COVID crisis has proved that online education works, we should move to permanently substitute online for most traditional in-person college education.

higher biology 2012 essay predictions

A major debate over the value of our traditional higher educational model will ensue. Defenders of the traditional model -- like defenders of the liberal arts over the last 40 years -- will lose, despite having many great arguments on their side. Right now, we have 5, online institutions. All of them will want to stay online and to market new online programs, but the market will only sustain a fraction of that amount.

Expect clear winners and losers to emerge quickly. Why go to a no-name online program when you can go to an online program that also has a nationally ranked football team?


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